In 2009/10 he was the leading run-scorer for the Proteas against England in the ODI series and was selected in the Test squad to India. He made his test debut on 14 February 2010 against India at Eden Gardens, Kolkata and became the 3rd South African to score a century on test debut after, Andrew Hudson and Jacques Rudolph. He also became the first player in the world to score a century in his first innings of a test and bowl a maiden over including a wicket in his first over of test cricket. Later in 2010, Petersen played for Kings of Khulna in Bangladesh’s NCL Twenty20 tournament.